Brrr...On January 24, 1922, the United States Patent Office granted a patent for the frozen novelty presently known as the Eskimo Pie. Patent number 1,404,539 was granted to Christian K. Nelson, the inventor of the "I-Scream Bar," (later to be renamed Eskimo Pie:) Since I posted about the invention of the Eskimo Pie on more than one occasion, I thought it was high time I explored a few more Arctic Recipes.
Once known as Eskimos, (The name they call themselves is Inuit) the Alaskan Inuit inhabit the west, southwest and far northern region of Alaska. Far within the Arctic Circle, their use and array of tools, spoken language, and physical type have changed little. For centuries, food in the Arctic has been the symbol of life and struggle. Polar Bear steaks, walrus tongue, seal liver, and whale hamburger are just a few of the dishes that have graced the table of the Alaskan Inuit. In the January 1934 issue of American Cookery Magazine, Elizabeth Chabot Forrest gives a vivid account of the years she spent working for the U.S. Bureau of Education among the Eskimos in northern Alaska. A chronicle of her 13 years spent in the Alaskan frontier was published in 1937 under the title of Daylight Moon, which is long out of print.
"The sameness of our diet there was at peace with the monotony of our surroundings...Level tundra, snow covered for at least nine months of the year, stretched to the north, to the east, and to the south of the government school building which was my home, while to the west lay the frozen Arctic Sea. Day after day I climbed to the "warm-storage" room above the kitchen and stood facing rows and rows of too familiar cans; kegs of pickled meat and butter; hams and bacons in their "Alaska seal" coating dangling from the ceiling."
In a land where even a small climatic change can affect an entire animal population, the diet and preservation techniques of the Inuit were imperative to their well being. The methods used by the Inuit were the source of inspiration adopted by Clarence Birdseye in the 1930s with the birth of the frozen food industry. While Birdseye was trapping Caribou in the Arctic, he adapted the techniques used by the Eskimos, who preserved their capture naturally in the fast freezing temperatures of the Arctic by burying it in the ice.
While stationed in Alaska, Elizabeth Forrest was just over 1,000 nautical miles from the North Pole in the northernmost point of the United States known as Point Barrow. The water surrounding Point Barrow is normally ice-free for only two or three months out of the year. It is close to the scene of the airplane crash that killed aviator Wiley Post and his passenger, the entertainer Will Rogers.
"Along the windswept coast of the Chukchi Sea, about 13 miles south of Barrow, America's beloved humorist, Will Rogers, along with pilot Wiley Post, died when their small aircraft crashed On August 15, 1935. The adventurous duo were seeking a better route to Siberia via Alaska." source
From the American Cookery:
"Our year's supply of food was brought to us by freight boat each August and it must last until the following August. To make sure of this, on its arrival I carefully portioned out each thing--one can of crab per week, one of asparagus tips, two tins of butter. But somehow, towards spring, all of the choicer edibles had disappeared, gone to celebrate special occasions or to brighten days when spirits and appetite were at lowest ebb. Nothing remained but bare essentials. It was then that I returned oftenest to the native foods to supplement our menus."
The story continues in detail with regard to the Inuit preparation of reindeer. I find it quite interesting but you may not. I don't need much of an excuse to scan so, if you are interested in that portion of the article, click the image.
We learned about the filming of Nanook of the North, the groundbreaking Alaskan documentary last year on Eskimo Pie Day. That was when I discovered the Inuit are traditionally hunters and fishers whose native diet consists primarily of seal and walrus. It just so happens that I have a booklet of Arctic recipes. Undated, it was published by the Department of Northern Affairs & National Resources in Ottawa, Canada.
"To the ranks of the Eskimo housewife has been added the housewife who has gone to live in the Arctic. Her basic food supplies probably come up once a year by sea or river, air freight is high. Though for the most part she uses foods from her own storeroom for there are strict regulations governing the taking of game on which Eskimo life may depend, her husband from time to time receives a present of game from an Eskimo. Or, for some reason, the family must rely temporarily on country foods. When this happens these recipes show she can adapt to an Arctic situation as readily as the Eskimo women..."
According to Ms. Forrest, "Seal is the Pièce de résistance on the iglu table." Scanned below you will find recipes for Seal Casserole, Seal Liver, Mutuk (whale skin) and Arctic Salad which, by the way, is enhanced with caribou moss. I have also scanned recipes for Fricasee Of Arctic Hare, Bearburgers (Polar Bear Steaks) an Arctic Mixed Grill and Saddle of Caribou or Reindeer.
"Stewing is the commonest form of cookery in the iglu (igloo), not only for seal but walrus, whale, and bear as well, though all of these meats are as readily consumed frozen raw. Stewing, itself, is a very sketchy process. The seal is hacked into pieces convenient to grasp later with the fingers, packed into a kettle filled with snow; and placed upon a tiny coal-oil stove; or blubber-burning stove, (image) fashioned from empty coal-oil tins. As soon as the snow melts and the water begins to steam, the stew is done...One favorite method of preparing meat during the flush hunting season of July, is to strip the skin from a seal, removing the carcass through the mouth and leaving the hide intact, stuff this sack or "pulkrah" with chunks of whale and walrus, fill it with seal oil, and fasten it shut to pickle for some months. Needless to say, I never sampled this native delicacy..."
Once again from American Cookery"
"I could place before you juicy brown hamburger steaks of whale or walrus and defy you to notice any difference from your usual beef...There is one portion of the whale which most white dwellers in the Arctic enjoy, and that is muk-tuk, the thick, black, outer skin of the whale. Narrow strips of it are hard boiled, then pickled in vinegar, bay leaf, and spices, and kept on hand as a relish. Freshly boiled, it had to me the texture and consistency of India rubber and, although its flavor was faintly reminiscent of hazelnuts, I did not enjoy it..."
I have scanned a few more highlights of the article below. (including an encounter with a Polar bear) Although I found it quite fascinating and educational, others may not. It certainly gives a distinct description of the Arctic table during the time Elizabeth Forrest was stationed there.
When it comes to beverages mentioned in the article, there is only one, tea. It appears, Ms. Forrest is not to fond of what she describes as muk-pow-rah, "a sort of pale, sodden, unsweetened doughnut fried in seal oil." "I could not even bring myself to sample one of the crisp, puffy doughnuts fried in my own kitchen in seal oil by my own cooking class of school girls." "I was still less able to sit down in an iglu to tea and muk-pow-rah, although they were hopefully urged upon me by hospitable hostesses almost daily," she writes. And as for the tea:
"Perhaps the Eskimos borrowed the tea drinking habit from their Russian or Oriental neighbors across the water. Wherever it came from, they are inveterate tea drinkers. One finds them perpetually sitting in a circle on the floor of the snow covered igloo in winter, in an open air gathering place in the center of the village in summer, sipping streaming cups of the black liquid. The supply is practically inexhaustible, for the same tea leaves occupy the big tin teakettle (purchased from some whaling captain) week after week, snow or water being added whenever tea is wanted, and the kettle placed to boil. If times are prosperous, just after the arrival of a whaling vessel or a trader, sugar is added generously to the kettle. If times are lean, salt takes its place."
Enjoy Eskimo Pie Day and don't forget, tomorrow is Irish Coffee Day!